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2017年2月12日GRE作文机经预测

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题目

Milk and dairy products are rich in vitamin D and calcium—substances essential for building and maintaining bones. Many people therefore say that a diet rich in dairy products can help prevent osteoporosis, a disease that is linked to both environmental and genetic factors and that causes the bones to weaken significantly with age. But a long-term study of a large number of people found that those who consistently consumed dairy products throughout the years of the study have a higher rate of bone fractures than any other participants in the study. Since bone fractures are symptomatic of osteoporosis, this study result shows that a diet rich in dairy products may actually increase, rather than decrease, the risk of osteoporosis.

Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.

题目翻译

牛奶和奶制品富含维生素D和钙,这些都是骨骼生长和保持骨骼健康所必须的物质。因此很多人相信多吃奶制品的饮食可以有助预防骨质疏松症 [译]骨质疏松症与环境因素和基因因素都有关系,而且它导致骨骼随年龄增长而脆性显著增加。但是对大量人群的进行的一项长期研究发现:那些在研究期间经常食用奶制品的人骨折发病率比其他参加研究的人要高。由于骨折是骨质疏松症的症状之一,这一研究结果表明多吃奶制品实际上会增加而不是减少患骨质疏松症的风险。

说明:写一篇文章,阐述需要哪些具体的证据来评价这个论证过程,并解释这些证据如何削弱或强化这个论证过程。

题目分析

A. 前提:bone fractures are a symptom of osteoporosis

骨折是骨质疏松症的症状之一

B. 结论:a diet rich in dairy products may actually increase, rather than decrease, the risk of osteoporosis

多吃奶制品实际上会增加而不是减少患骨质疏松症的风险

C. 论据:

1. Milk and dairy products are rich in vitamin D and calcium, substances essential for building and maintaining bones

牛奶和奶制品富含维生素D和钙,这些都是骨骼生长和保持骨骼健康所必须的物质

2. Many people therefore believe that a diet rich in dairy products can help prevent osteoporosis, a disease in which the bones weaken significantly with age and that is linked to both environmental and genetic factors

很多人相信多吃奶制品的饮食可以有助预防骨质疏松症

3. Osteoporosis is a disease in which the bones weaken significantly with age and that is linked to both environmental and genetic factors

骨质疏松症是一种骨骼随年龄增长而脆性显著增加的疾病,而且它与环境因素和基因因素都有关系

4. A long-term study of a large number of people found that those who have consistently consumed dairy products throughout the years of the study have a higher rate of bone fractures than any other participants in the study

对大量人群的进行的一项长期研究发现:那些在研究期间经常食用奶制品的人骨折发病率比其他参加研究的人要高

提纲(可攻击点)

1、“维生素D和钙”是骨骼生长和保持骨骼健康所必须的物质,但是食用“牛奶和奶制品”是否就会给人体补充充足的骨骼生长和保持骨骼健康所必须的物质?

2、“骨折是骨质疏松症的症状之一”,但能否仅根据骨折就说明骨质疏松?

3、食用奶制品仅仅是保证“骨骼生长和保持骨骼健康”的一个因素,和“与环境因素和基因因素都有关系有关”而且“是一种骨骼随年龄增长而脆性显著增加的疾病”的骨质疏松相比,是否存在直接对应关系?

 

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