Ramadan Mubarak! With the Muslim holy month of Ramadan just started, now is a good time to learn to say "Happy Ramadan!" – especially if you are considering travel between 11 August and 10 September to countries with majority Muslim populations, like Indonesia, Egypt, Turkey and Morocco. With a few pointers, you can join a happy Ramadan already in progress.
1. Know the basics
Ramadan is a lunar month dedicated to sawm, or fasting, one of the five pillars of Islam. From sunup to sundown, the faithful abstain from food, drink, tobacco and sex to concentrate on spiritual renewal. After sunset, there is a euphoric iftar, or meal, to break the fast, followed by a late-night feast and sahur, a meal before the sun comes up and fasting begins again. Yet Ramadan is not all daytime discipline and nightly parties: it is a time of generosity and zakat, or charity, another of the five pillars of Islam. Fasting is not easy, so everyone slows down during the day - but you will also notice people going out of their way to extend small kindnesses.
2. Plan ahead
Like any holiday, Ramadan affects business as usual. Many venues operate with limited hours and staff, so try to book accommodation, transport and tours via internet or phone before you arrive. Even if offices have posted hours, call ahead to ensure someone is available to meet your needs. Most restaurants close by day, so pack lunches or reserve ahead at restaurants that open for lunch in tourist areas.
3. Shift your schedule
Nightly festivities trump early bedtimes during Ramadan. Sunset streets come alive with light displays, music and offers of sweets at every intersection. After an iftar of dates, soup or savoury snacks, people of all ages binge on sweets until the late-night feast - followed by more visits and sweets, until wired kids finally wear themselves out. There is no rush to get up the next day, unless shopping is on the agenda. Stores often close in the afternoon, and bargaining is more pleasant before midday heat kicks in and lack of water is felt. As sundown approaches, the mood turns upbeat, with Ramadan finery on display and tantalizing aromas filling the streets.
4. Get into the Ramadan spirit
Do not worry: you will not be expected to fast during Ramadan. According to tradition, even Muslim travellers are exempt from fasting ?- it is hard to do at home under controlled conditions, let alone in unfamiliar places. To show your support, avoid eating or drinking on the street in front of people who are probably fasting, and grant people privacy at prayer times.
5. Accept hospitality
When a new friend offers you special Ramadan sweets or invites you to a family feast, polite refusal would be crushing. You are not obliged to return the favour or eat the sweets: you honour givers just by accepting their generosity in the spirit of Ramadan. Kindness can be repaid by practicing zakat, and giving to a local charity.