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  题目:the nature of yawning




  文章大意:讲关于打呵欠传染的研究,主要有三个研究机构开展的研究。第一个机构研究发 现打呵欠是人类冷却大脑的一种方式。后面两个研究发现打呵欠和个人的性格、同情心、专 业背景有关,和性别无关。最后讲了呵欠产生的过程,提到有一种理论讲的是呵欠可能是人类 交流的一种方式,用于提醒同伴你累了需要休息,从而要求对方打起精神应对危险。


  14. C imagining leads to yawning

  15. D occupation and inclination to yawning

  16. A overview of research

  17. B body temperature and yawning

  18. B disapprove of a theory

  19. B not difference in gender

  20. C mental disorder 文中定位:autism

  21. A the way we breathe 文中定位:inhale

  22. B trained yawn more than the untrained

  23. bond用来联系人类情感

  24 danger危险的时候警示别人



  题目:the nature of music


  题型:选择4道+段落信息匹配5道+判断5道 参考答案:

  25. C定位词:第一段中的 nature of music ,答案:many elements

  26. D 定位词:language and music ,答案:STEVE

  27. A 定位词:Neanderthals 答案:show reactions

  28. C定位词:Neanderthals and homo sapiens 答案:for partners

  31 . D 定位词:feature and music ,答案:change in all cultures

  32. C 定位词:Mithen ,答案:reference for other people

  33. A定位词:precious research ,答案:limited in the range of research

  34. E 定位词:power of emotion ,答案:long history

  35. B 定位词:reviewer disagrees with Mithen ,答案:modem speech 影响音乐

  36. TRUE most discussion ignore physical factors

  37. TRUE shared features/small societies/remote areas

  38. NOT GIVEN people talk to babies/similar to/Neandethals music

  39. FALSE Mithen support Steve

  40. NOT GIVEN modem people depend heavily on electronic music

  题目:Thomas Young ~The Last True Know一It一All




  A Thomas Young(1773一1829)contributed 63 articles to the Encyclopedia Britannica, Including 46 Biographical entries(mostly on scientists and classicists) and substantial essays on "Bridge,"Chromatics," "Egypt,""Languages, and"Tides" Was someone who could write authoritatively about so many subjects a polymath, a genius or a dilettante? In an ambitious new biography, Andrew Robinson argues that Young is a good contender for the epitaph"the last man who knew everything” Young has competition, however: The phrase, which Robinson takes for his title, also serves as the subtitle of two other recent biographies: Leonard Warren's 1998 life of paleontologist Joseph Leidy (1823一1891) and Paula Findlen's 2004 book on Athanasius Kircher (1602一1680), another polymath.

  B Young, of course, did more than write encyclopedia entries . He presented hid first paper to the Royal Society of London at the age of 2O and was elected a Fellow a week after his 2lst birthday. In the paper, Young explained the process of accommodation in the human eye一on how the eye focuses properly on objects at varying distances. Young hypothesized that this was achieved by changes in the shape of the lens. Young also theorized that light traveled in waves and he believed that, to account for the ability to see in color, there must be three receptors in the eye corresponding to the three "principal colors" to which the retina could respond: red, green, violet. All these hypotheses were subsequently proved to be correct.

  C Later in his life, when he was in his forties, Young was instrumental in cracking the code that Unlocked the unknown s cript on the Rosetta Stone,a tablet that was "found" in Egypt by the Napo leonic army in1799.The stone contains text in three alphabets: Greek, something Unrecognizable and Egyptian hieroglyphs. The unrecognizable s cript is now known as demotic and, as Young deduced, is related directly to hieroglyphic. His initial work on this appeared in his Britannica entry on Egypt. In another entry, he coined the term Indo一European to des cribe the family of languages spoken throughout most of Europe and northern India. These are the landmark achievements of a man who was a child prodigy and who,unlike many remarkable children, did not disappear into oblivion as an adult.

  D Bom in 1773 in Somerset in England, Young lived from an early age with his maternal Grandfather ,eventually leaving to attend boarding school. He had devoured books from the age of two, and through his own initiative he excelled at Latin, Greek, mathematics and natural philosophy. After leaving school , he was greatly encouraged by his mother's uncle, Richard Brocklesby, a physician and Fellow of the Royal Society. Following Brocklesby lead, Young decided to pursue a career in medicine. He studied in London, following the medical circuit, and then moved on to more formal education in Edinburgh, G6ttingen and Cambridge. After completing his medical training at the University of Cambridge in 1808, Young set up practice as a physician in London. He soon became a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and a few years later was appointed physician at St. George’s Hospital.

  E Young’s skill as a physician, however, did not equal his skill as a scholar of natural philosophy or linguistics. Earlier, in 1801, he had been appointed to a professorship of natural philosophy at the Royal Institution, where he delivered as many as 60 lectures in a year. These were published in two volumes in 1807. In 1804 Young had become secretary to the Royal Society, a post he would hold until his death. His opinions were sought on civic and national matters, such as the introduction of gas lighting to London and methods of ship construction. From 1819 he was superintendent of the Nautical Almanac and secretary to the Board of Longitude. From 1824 to 1829 he was physician to and inspector of calculations for the Palladian Insurance Company. Between 1816 and 1825 he contributed his many and various entries to the Encyclopedia Britannica, and throughout his career he authored numerous books, essays and papers.

  F Young is a perfect subject for a biography - perfect, but daunting. Few men contributed so much to so many technical fields. Robinson^ aim is to introduce non-scientists to Young5s work and life. He succeeds, providing clear expositions of the technical material (especially that on optics and Egyptian hieroglyphs). Some readers of this book will, like Robinson, find Young’s accomplishments impressive; others will see him as some historians have - as a dilettante. Yet despite the rich material presented in this book, readers will not end up knowing Young personally. We catch glimpses of a playful Young, doodling Greek and Latin phrases in his notes on medical lectures and translating the verses that a young lady had written on the walls of a summerhouse into Greek elegiaes. Young was introduced into elite society, attended the theatre and learned to dance and play the flute. In addition, he was an accomplished horseman. However, his personal life looks pale next to his vibrant career and studies.

  G Young married Eliza Maxwell in 1804, and according to Robinson, "their marriage was a happy one and she appreciated his work11 Almost all we know about her is that she sustained her husband through some rancorous disputes about optics and that she worried about money when his medical career was slow to take off. Veiy little evidence survives about the complexities of Young5s relationships with his mother and father. Robinson does not credit them, or anyone else, with shaping Young5 s extraordinary mind. Despite the lack of details concerning Young5 s relationships, however, anyone interested in what it means to be a genius should read this book.


  Questions 1-7

  Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1 ?

  In boxes 1 -7 on your answer sheet, write TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false

  NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage

  1 The last man who knew everything’ has also been claimed to other people. True

  2 All Young articles were published in Encyclopedia Britannica. False

  3 Like others, Young wasn’t so brilliant when grew up. False

  4 Young talents as a doctor are surpassing his other skills. NG

  5 Young advice was sought by people responsible for local and national issues. True

  6 Young was interested in various social pastimes. True

  7 Young suffered from a disease in his later years. NG

  Questions 8-13

  Answer the questions below.

  Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.

  8 How many life stories did Young write for Encyclopedia Britannica? 46

  9 What aspect of scientific research did Young do in his first academic paper? Human eye accommodation

  10 What name did Young introduce to refer to a group of languages? Indo-European

  11 Who inspired Young to start the medical studies? Richard Brocklesby

  12 Where did Young get a teaching position? Royal Institution

  13 What contribution did Young make to London? Gas lighting